Descriptive Text,Soal Descriptive Text, dan Pembahasannya


A. Descriptive Text
Fungsi Sosial: untuk menjelaskan atau mendeskripsikan orang, binatang, tempat ataupun suatu benda. Umumnya, yang dideskripsikan adalah bentuk, ciri, ataupun sifatnya.
To explain or describe a person, animal, place or a thing by describing the features, or characteristic.

Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):
Adapun struktur dari descriptive text adalah sebagai berikut:
  • Identification: pengenalan objek atau hal yang akan dideskripsikan.
  • Description: penginformasian ciri-ciri objek, misalnya sifat-sifat psikologis perilaku, tampilan fisik, dan yang lainnya secara spesifik.

Contoh Descriptive Text
Borobudur Temple

Borobudur is a Buddhist temple. It was built in the ninth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Borobudur is located in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia.

Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 meter high and consists of eight steps like stone terrace. The first five terraces are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Buddhist sculpture in bas-relief. The upper three are circular. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. The entire upper structure is crowned by a large stupa at the center of the top circle. The way to the summit extends through some 4.8 km of passage and stairways.

The design of Borobudur symbolizes the conception of universe in Buddhist cosmology. It is believed that the universe is divided into three spiritual spheres, kamadhatu, rupadhatu, and arupadhatu. The first sphere, kamadhatu, represents respectively the sphere of desires where we are bound to our desires; the second sphere, rupadhatu, represents forms where we abandon our desires but are still bound to name and form; and the last sphere, arupadhatu, represents formlessness where there is no longer either name or form. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. With its magnificent size and architecture, no wonder that Borobudur Temple includes 7 wonders of the world.


Candi Borobudur

Candi Borobudur merupakan sebuah candi Budha. Candi Borobudur dibangun pada abad ke-9 di bawah dinasti Sailendra dari kerajaan Mataram Kuno. Candi Borobudur terletak di Magelang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia.

Candi Borobudur terkenal di seluruh dunia. Pembangunannya dipengaruhi oleh arsitektur Gupta dari India. Candi tersebut dibangun di atas bukit dengan tinggi 46 meter yang terdiri dari 8 tingkat seperti teras batu. Lima tingkat pertama berbentuk persegi dengan dikelilingi oleh dinding-dinding berhias kan ukiran dengan patung Budah di relief. Tiga tingkat di atasnya berbentuk lingkaran. Di setiap tingkatan itu terdapat stupa berbentuk lonceng. Di bagian paling atas seluruhnya dimahkotai oleh stupa besar di bagian tengah pada lingkaran atas. Jalan menuju puncak candi ditempuh dengan melalui jalan dan tangga sepanjang 4.8 km.

Desain Borobudur yang melambangkan struktur alam semesta dalam kosmologi budha. Hal ini diyakini bahwa alam semesta dibagi menjadi tiga bidang spiritual, Kamadhatu, Rupadhatu, dan Arupadhatu. Bidang pertama, Kamadhatu, mewakili masing-masing bidang keinginan dimana kita terikat dengan keinginan kita; bidang kedua, Rupadhatu, merupakan bentuk di mana kita meninggalkan keinginan kita tetapi masih terikat nama dan bentuk; dan bidang terakhir, arupadhatu, mewakili fase tak berbentuk di mana tidak ada lagi nama atau pun bentuk. Candi Borobudur yang rededicated sebagai monumen Indonesia pada tahun 1983 adalah harta berharga bagi rakyat Indonesia. Dengan ukuran yang megah dan arsitektur, tidak mengherankan bahwa Candi Borobudur termasuk 7 keajaiban dunia.

The following text is for questions 1 to 2.
Mecca is Islam’s holiest city, home to the Kaaba Shrine and the Grand Mosque. The city is known for the annual Hajj pilgrimage, being one of the five pillars of Islam. In the 7th century, the Islamic Prophet, Muhammad, proclaimed Islam in the city. The city played an important role in the early history of Islam and now it is an important trading center. After 966, Mecca was led by local Sharifs, until 1924, when it came under the rule of the Saudis. In its modern period, Mecca has seen a great expansion in size infrastructure.
The modern day city is located in the capital of Saudi Arabia’s Makkah Province, in the historic Hejaz region. With a population of 1, 700, 000 (2008), the city is located 73 kilometers (45 miles) inland from Jeddah, in a narrow valley and 277 meters (910 feet) above sea level.
  1. What is the text about?
A.       Saudi Arabia.
B.       The size of the city.
C.       The city of Mecca.
D.       The location of the city.
Soal ini menanyakan topik teks. Teks tersebut mendeskripsikan kota Mekah (Mecca City). Jadi topik teks ini adalah tentang “Kota Mekah” , the city of Mecca.
Jawaban: C

  1. Why is Mecca important?
A.       It has more than 2 million inhabitants.
B.       It has a modern infrastructure.
C.       It is a world trade center.
D.       It is a holy city.
Pembahasan: Why is Mecca Important? (Mengapa Mekkah itu kota yang penting?). Jawaban atas pertanyaan ini bersifat tersurat (bisa ditemukan di dalam teks). Mekkah dianggap sebagai kota yang penting karena merupakan kota suci, It is a holy city. Dapat kita temukan di Paragraf 1 kalimat 1: Mecca is Islam’s holiest city, home to the Kaaba Shrine and the Grand Mosque.
Jawaban: D

The following text is for questions 3 to 7.
Karimunjawa is an archipelago of 27 islands in the Java Sea, stretching approximately 83 kilometers northwest of Jepara, Central Java. It consists of small islands, mostly uninhabited, with the main ones being Karimunjawa, Kemujan, Menjangan Besar and Menjangan Kecil islands.
The name of Karimunjawa was derived from the Javanese language “kremun kremun saking tanah jawi” as addressed by one from Wali Songo. The name describes how far these islands from Java, to be exact from Semarang and Jepara.
Designated as a national marine park, Karimunjawa is home to mangrove, coastal forests and a great variety of marine animals such as crabs, anchovy, starfish, sharks, stingray, jellyfish, red snappers, etc. It is also a popular tourist destination, with its white sandy beaches, pristine coral reefs and challenging treks through the hills. The reefs are a mixture of fringing and barrier and patched with bottom depths ranging from 15 to 40 meters.
The islands offer stunning diving and snorkeling trips. Fringing reefs, atolls, wrecks and an excellent variety of species make diving in Karimunjawa an unforgettable adventure.

  1. What is the paragraph two about?
A.  The main islands in Karimunjawa.
B.  The origin of the Karimunjawa name.
C.  The roles of Wali Songo in Java.
D.  The biodiversity in Karimunjawa.
E.   The national marine park.
Pembahasan: Model soal ini adalah tentang “pikiran utama paragraf ke dua”, dengan membaca isi paragraf ke dua, maka kita dapat menarik kesimpulan bahwa pikiran utama paragraf tersebut adalah: asal nama Karimunjawa, The origin of the Karimunjawa name.
Jawaban: B

  1. From the text, it can be concluded that ...
A.  tourists can dive and snorkel in Karimunjawa
B.  there are ten inhabited islands in Karimunjawa
C.  Karimunajawa comprises with more than 30 islands
D.  Karimunjawa is 83 kilometers northeast of Jepara
E.   Karimunjawa is popular for its pink beaches and atolls
Pembahasan: Model soal ini adalah tentang “kesimpulan dari teks yang dibaca”, kesimpulan isi teks tersebut adalah wisatawan dapat menyelam dan snorkel, tourists can dive and snorkel in Karimunjawa.
Jawaban: A

  1. What kinds of vegetation are there in Karimunjawa?
A.  Swamp land and mangrove forests.
B.  Savannah and tropical rain forests.
C.  Mangrove and coastal forests.
D.  Ironwood and rain forests.
E.   Scrub and grassland.
Pembahasan: Model soal ini adalah tentang “Informasi tersurat”, dapat ditemukan di paragraf 1 kalimat 1: Designated as a national marine park, Karimunjawa is home to mangrove, coastal forests... yang berarti Karimunjawa merupakan tempat tumbuhnya mangrove dan hutan pesisir.
Jawaban: C.
  1. “Designated as a national marine park, ... “ (Paragraph 3).
What does ‘to designate’ mean?
A.  To innagurate.
B.  To preserve.
C.  To appoint.
D.  To campaign.
E.   To develop.
Pembahasan: Model soal ini adalah “sinonim”. Designated berarti ditunjuk, berarti sinonimnya adalah “apppointed”. Karena soalnya menanyakan sinonim dari kata “to designate”, maka jawaban yang bersinonim dengan kata tersebut adalah “to appoint”, yang berarti “menunjuk”.
Jawaban: C.
  1. According to the text, we can find the following marine animals in Karimunjawa, except ...
A.  Starfish
B.  Goldfish
C.  Stingray
D.  Snappers
E.   Jellysish
Pembahasan: Model soal ini adalah “informasi tersurat”, menurut teks tersebut, kita bisa menemukan hewan laut di Karimunjawa, kecuali goldfish (ikan emas). Ikan emas (goldfish) tidak termasuk hewan laut yang hidup di Karimunjawa.
Jawaban: B.

The following text is for questions 8 to 10.
Bukit Duabelas National Park in Jambi is a relatively small park, compared to Indonesia’s large national parks. Covering only 60,500 hectares, the park was established in 2000, mainly to allow the regrowth of secondary forests and to protect the home of the forest people ‘Suku Anak Dalam’ or ‘Orang Rimba’.
The northern part of the park is primarily jungle, but the remainder is a tract of deforested land that was formerly a production forest, but allowed to revert as a trophical rainforest. The park is in fact the most important water catchment area in the province.
Bukit Duabelas, or Twelve Hills, is a lowland park with undulating contours. This is the habitat of Sumatra’s endangered species, such as tapirs, gibbons, clouded leopards, sun bears, wild cats and crested serpent eagles, including endangered plant species.
Orang Rimba are an isolated tribe who have lived in these jungles for years and have maintaned their simple, nut natural lifestyle. There are several theories and legends as to who they are and where they originate from.  One story relates that when the Sultan of Palembang had feuds with the Sultan of Jambi, the Sultan of Jambi asked for help from the Sultan of Pagaruyung who in turn sent soldiers to Jambi. On their way in the dense jungles, never came back out, but instead settled in the Jambi jungles and adopted the natural lifestyle.
Anak Dalam tribe live in and around the forest, and survive chiefly on hunting, gathering, agriculture and fishing.

  1. What is the purpose of the text?
A.  To amuse the readers.
B.  To relate the writer’s experience.
C.  To describe what Jambi Province is like.
D.  To describe Bukit Duabelas National Park.
E.   To tell readers on how to reach Bukit Duabelas National Park.
Pembahasan: Model soal ini adalah tentang “tujuan teks”. Teks ini merupakan derscriptive text, yang mendiskripsikan tentang Taman Nasional Bukit Duabelas, to describe Bukit Duabelas National Park.
Jawaban: D.

  1. What endangered animals are protected in the park?
A.  Tapirs, gibbons and one-horned rhinoceroses.
B.  Clouded leopards, sun bears and orangutans.
C.  Crested serpent eagles, tapirs and crocodiles.
D.  Clouded leopards, gibbons and wild boars.
E.   Tapirs, gibbons and clouded leopards.
Pembahasan: endangered= terancam punah. Hewan yang terancam punah yang dilindungi di taman tersebut adalah Tapirs, gibbons and clouded leopards. Jawaban soal ini bersifat tersurat, bisa ditemukan di paragraf 3 kalimat 2.

  1. Which statement is not true?
A.  Bukit Duabelas National Park in Jambi is only 60, 500 hectares.
B.  Suku Anak Dalam or Orang Rimba live in Bukit Duabelas National Park.
C.  Orang Rimba have lived in these jungles for years.
D.  The park is in fact the most important water catchment area for Jambi.
E.   Anak Dalam tribe survives chiefly on hunting, gathering, agriculture and fishing.
Pembahasan: Soal ini menguji Anda untuk memilih jawaban yang pernyataannya tidak sesuai dengan isi teks. The park is in fact the most important water catchment area for Jambi, yang berarti Taman tersebut merupakan kawasan tadah hujan bagi Jambi, tidak sesuai dengan isi teks.
Jawaban: D.

  1. “...lost their way in the dense jungles, never came back out ...” (Paragraph 4)
What is the synonym of ‘dense’?
A.  Orderly
B.  Sluggish
C.  Thick
D.  Fertile
E.   Barren
Pembahasan: Model soal ini adalah tentang “sinonim”. Persamaan makna kata “dense” adalah “thick”, yang berarti rimbun.
...lost their way in the dense jungles, never came back out ... (tersesat di dalam hutan rimbun, tidak pernah bisa keluar dari hutan ...
Jawaban: C.

The following text is for questions 12 to 14.
Gamalama, which is often called the peak of Ternate, is a strato-volcano in Ternate, North Maluku, Indonesia. It is one of Indonesia’ active volcanoes. Standing about 1,715 meters tall, Mount Gamalam has spewed lava more than 70 times since 1538 A. D.
Although it may pose a danger to the communities and surroundings, Mount Galama keeps the charm and its incredible beauty. Stunning views are spread around. Stretches of clove and nutmeg plantations can be seen by tourists during their trip to the summit. On reaching the summit, tourists can see Ternate Island landscape and other islands such as Tidore and Halmahera Islands. Tourists can also find unique places on the mountain, one of which is Abdas Springs.
  1. Where is the mountain located?
A.  On Bacan Island
B.  On Tidore Island
C.  On Maitara Island
D.  On Ternate Island
E.   On Halmahera Island
Model soal ini termasuk “informasi tersurat”, di manakah gunung itu terletak? Di Pulau Ternate, Ternate Island. Paragraf 1 kalimat 1.
Jawaban: D.

  1. What kinds of plantations are there around the mountain?
A.  Cacao and wheat.
B.  Cinnamon and tea.
C.  Cloves and rubber.
D.  Carrots and cabbages.
Model soal ini adalah “informasi tersurat”. Jenis tumbuhan apakah yang tumbuh disekitar gunung? Jawabannya ada di paragraf 2 kalimat 3.
Jawaban: C.

  1. Which statement is true according to the text?
A.  Mount Gamalama is a dormant volcano.
B.  Mount Gamalama is about 1,500 meters tall.
C.  There have been 17 eruptions since 1538 A. D.
D.  The view around the mountain is stunning.
E.   There is a crater take called Abdas.
Model soal ini adalah “informasi tersurat”. Anda diuji untuk memilih jawaban yang pernyataannya sesuai dengan isi teks. The view around the mountain is stunning adalah pernyataan yang sangat sesuai, yang berarti pemandangan disekitar gunung menakjubkan. Paragraf 2 kalimat 2.

The following text is for questions 15 to 17.
Toyota City
Toyota, a city in Japan, is on east central Honshu Island, in Central Aichi Prefecture on the Yahagi River. Toyota is the headquarter of the Toyota Motor Corporation and is a major automobile manufacturing and assembly center. A classic company town, it has a planned layout for its sprawling assembly plants, office complexes, and  housing-developments for workers and their families. The city was formerly named Koromo, meaning “clothing” and prospered from the late 19th century until the 1930s as a center of the silk industry. Its development as an automobile manufacturing center began with the opening of the first assembly plant in 1937. The city’s name was changed to Toyota in 1959 after the second plant, Motomachi, was opened and the population began to grow rapidly, Population (2002): 342, 835.
  1. What is the main idea of the text?
A.       The history of the Toyota City.
B.       The geogrophical aspects of the Toyota City.
C.       The production of the Toyota Motor Corporation.
D.       The families and workers of the Toyota Motor Corporation.
Model soal ini adalah tentang “topik teks”. Topik teks ini adalah tentang sejarah kota Toyota, Toyota City.
Jawaban: A.

  1. What was the old name of the Toyota City?
A.       Yahagi.
B.       Honshu.
C.       Koromo.
D.       Motomachi.

Apakah nama dari kota Toyota sebelumnya? Jawabannya adalah Koromo. Model soal ini adalah “informasi tersurat”.
Jawaban: C.

  1. The word “their” in the sentence ‘it has planned layout for its sprawling assembly plants, office complexes, and housing development for workers and their families’ refer to ...
A.       Workers.
B.       Headquarters.
C.       Cassembly plants.
D.       Housing developments.
Model soal ini adalah tentang “referensi makna”. Their family berarti keluarga mereka, kata “their” menggantikan para pekerja atau workers. Keluarganya para pekerja.
Jawaban: A.

The following text is for questions 18 to 21.
My name is Roberto and I am 34 years old. My family and I left our hometown Acapulco, Brazil for New York fifteen years ago. Initially, I missed the sunshine, food, my friensd, etc. However, I now have a successful business with my brother and two sisters. We run a soccer store in New Brunswick and I am married with two children, who attend American schools.
When asked why I cam to the US, I say without hesitation,”Because I wanted to work hard and be successful.” I certainly work hard. I am at the store all day, then work as a driver in the evening.”That’s why I like America,” I say,”You can be what you want.” 
18.         How old was Roberto when he left his country?
A.       Eighteen years old.
B.       Ninetten years old.
C.       Twenty years old.
D.       Twenty one years old.
E.        Thirty four years old.
Berapakah umur Roberto ketika dia meninggalkan negara asalnya? Jawabannya adalah saat dia berumur 19 tahun. Bagaimana kok bisa 19 tahun? Saat ini Roberto dia berumur 34 tahun, dan dia pergi ke Amerika 15 tahun lalu. 34-15= 19.

19.     What was Roberto’s reason leaving his country?
A.       He wanted to continue his studies.
B.       He wanted to open a new business.
C.       He pursued his dream to be a businessman.
D.       He wanted to work hard and be successful.
E.        He got a job there.
Apakah alasan Roberto meninggalkan negara asalnya? Dia ingin bekerja keras dan sukses. Model soal ini bersifat “informasi tersurat”. Paragraf 2 kalimat 1.
Jawaban: D.

  1. From the text, we can conclude that Roberto ...
A.       feels regret moving to New York.
B.       has got married and has two sons.
C.       spent his childhood in Acapulco.
D.       has one sister and two brothers.
E.        earns money for living as a taxi driver only.
Pembahasan: Dari teks tersebut, kita bisa menyimpulkan bahwa Roberto telah menikah dan memiliki dua anak laki-laki. has got married and has two sons. Paragraf 1, kalimat 4.
Jawaban: B.

  1. “...I say without hesitation.” (Paragraph 2).
The underlined word is similar to ...
A.       doubt
B.       certainly
C.       sadness
D.       reason
E.        regret
Model soal ini adalah tentang “sinonim”. Kata “hesitation” memiliki persamaan makna dengan kata “doubt” yang berarti ragu.

The following text is for questions 22 to 25.
Galang is an island of 80 km2 of Riau Archipelago Province. It is located on the southeast of Batam. The two islands with Rempang Island form a group called Barelang. They are connected by the Barelang Bridge. The nearest city to Galang is Tanjung Pinang on Bintan, about a 30 minute boat ride away.

Galang island is well-known as a Vietnamese refugee camp from 1979 to 1996, administrated by the UNHCR, the UN’s organization which takes care for refugess. On this island, many Vietnamese boat people and asylum seekers were temporarily accomodated in Galang camp during the determination of their refugee status and their subsequent resettlement in the USA, Australia and a few European countries.

Today, Galang island (and the former refugee area known as Sinam Camp) is managed by Batam Industrial Development Authority (BIDA). In 1992 according to Indonesian Presidential Decree No. 28 /1992, the expanded BIDA Working Area includes Rempang islands. BIDA built six bridges which were inagurated on January 25, 1998. They provide a land connection between Batam Islan-Tonton Island-Nipah Island-Setoko Island-Rempang Island-Galang Island-Galang Baru (New Galang) Island in order to develop all these islands.

  1. What does Barelang stand for?
A.       Batam-Rempang-Galang
B.       Bintan-Rempang-Galang
C.       Batan-Tanjung Pinang-Galang Baru
D.       Bintan-Rempang-Tanjung Pinang
E.        Batam-Rempang-Galang Baru
Apakah singkatan dari Barelang? Batam-Rempang-Galang.
Jawaban: A

  1. What is the main idea of paragraf two?
A.       The description of Galang Island.
B.       Galang Island’s history as a refugee camp.
C.       Galang Island as a historical tourist destination.
D.       Vietnamese boat people and asylum seekers.
E.        UNHCR, the UN’s organization which takes care of refugees.
Pikiran utama dari paragraf dua adalah sejarah pulau galang sebagi kamp pengungsi, Galang Island’s history as a refugee camp.
Jawaban: B

  1. What is the purpose of building six brigdes to connect Batam Island and its nearby islands?
A.       To improve the number of tourist visits.
B.       To shorten the distance between the islands.
C.       To develop new tourist destinations on the Islands.
D.       To increase the development of those islands.
E.        To be icons of those island’s development.
Apakah tujuan membangun enam jembatan untuk menghubunngkan Pulau Batam dan pulau sekitarnya? Tujuannya adalah untuk meningkatkan perkembangan pulau-pulau tersebut.
Untuk mendapatkan jawaban ini, Anda harus memahami isi dari paragraf tiga.
Jawaban: D.

22  25. What can we infer from the text?
A.       Galang Island belongs to Riau Province.
B.       Vietnamese boat people returned to their country.
C.       We can reach Galang Island from Tanjung Pinang by plane.
D.       Vietnamese refugess lived on Galang Island permanently.
E.        Galang Island served as a refugees camp for seventeen years.
Apakah yang bisa kita simpulkan dari teks ini? Jawabannya adalah:  Pulau Galang sebagai kamp pengungsian selama 17 tahun,  Galang Island served as a refugees camp for seventeen years.
Jawaban: E

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