Class Action Research Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris


Penelitian Tindakan Kelas dan Contoh Proposal Penelitian Tindakan Kelas

Apa itu Penelitian Tindakan Kelas? 
Hallo semua para pembaca yang sedang meluncur pada halaman website ini, pada kesempatan kali ini saya akan memberikan contoh "proposal penelitian tindakan kelas" atau yang sering kita sebut dengan "PTK". Bagi kalian yang latar pendidikannya adalah keguruan, atau saat ini berprofesi sebagai guru, pasti kalian tidak asing dengan istilah PTK, namun mungkin ada beberapa yang masih asing dengan apa yang dimaksud dengan PTK. Jadi secara garis besar, penelitian tindakan kelas (class action research) itu adalah sebuah reserach (penelitian) yang bertujuan untuk memperbaiki pembelajaran di suatu kelas, terutama dalam rangka untuk meningkatkan mutu pembelajaran di kelas. Berikut ini saya berikan contoh PTK mata pelajaran bahasa Inggris. Semoga bermanfaat. Jika ada pertanyaan, Anda bisa menuliskan di kolom koment. Selamat membaca. 

Contoh Penelitian Tindakan Kelas Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris

(A Classroom Action Research Proposal at the Twelve Grade Students of SMK Bina Patria 1 Sukoharjo in the academic Year of 2019/2020)

Arranged by:
Eko Wahyudi




Reading comprehension is the capability of people to process text, understand its meaning, and to integrate with what the they already knows. In learning foreign language, reading comprehension is one of the skills that has to be mastered by the students. In addition, this skill often taught at the 12th grade because the questions of the national examination is dominated by the form of reading comprehension test. 

To comprehend the reading text well, students have to master some indicators of the reading, including: finding main idea of each paragraph, purpose of the text, explicit- implicit information, and reference. Based on the result of students’ pretest score of 12th grade SMK Bina Patria 1 Sukoharjo in 2019/2010 academic year, it is found that the indicator of the students’ reading skill is under the passing grade, that is lower than 75. After students had finished the test, the teacher checked their answer, then it was found that the most students’ wrong answer is in finding the main idea of paragraph. 

The low score of reading comprehension test is caused by some reasons, such as the media used in teaching reading comprehension is not attractive, students’ lack motivation, or students’ lack concentration during the lesson. 

To overcome the students’ problem in reaching the indicator of the reading comprehension, the researcher plans to conduct the mind map technique. What is mind map? A mind map is a graphical way to represent ideas and concepts. It is a visual thinking tool that helps structuring information, helping students to better analyze, comprehend, synthesize, recall and generate new ideas. Mind map can solve the problem of students’ reading comprehension because: by using words, pictures, and diagrams, students are able to organize their thoughts, by using a combination of words and pictures while reading is more advantageous for remembering information than words alone.  A mind map contains a number of essential elements that make it a unique tool for students. These maps often begins with the main idea, easily distinguishable at the center. Main themes branch out from the main idea before being broken into smaller subsets. As the map grows larger, it will include images or other graphical elements that connect the main themes back to the central idea. Mindmapping takes a conceptual approach to learning, and help students visualize a subject and understand how various ideas are interconnected in both the theorical and practical senses.

Class Action Research which is conducted through mind map technique is expected can improve the students’ ability in finding the main idea of each paragraph easily, so their score in reading comprehension test can increase significantly. Besides, the result of this research hopefuly can give contribution to language teachers, especially English teachers, that mind map is properly to apply in teaching reading comprehension. 

Based on the background above, the problems that come up in this study are formulated as follows:
1. How do I improve students’ reading skill in finding main idea through mind mapping at the 12th grade of SMK Bina Patria 1 Sukoharjo in 2019/2020 academic year?
2. What are the strenghths of the mind mapping technique for the teaching reading? 

The objectives of the study are:
1. to investigate how the mind map technique can improve students’ reading skill in finding maind idea of each paragraph at the 12th grade of SMK Bina Patria 1 Sukoharjo in 2019/2020 academic year.
2. to investigate the strengths of the mind mapping technique for teaching reading. 

The result of the study is expected to be able to give some contributions for many parties. Below are the significant contributions of the study:
1. The English teachers of SMK Bina Patria 1 Sukoharjo, especially the 12th grade English teachers.
The researcher expects this report will give contributions to the teachers concerning with the students’ achievement in English. It is also expected that this report will give information to the teachers about the appropriate method to improve students’ ability in finding main idea of each paragraph.
2. The students of the 12th grade in SMK Bina Patria 1 Sukoharjo.
This report is expected to give benefit to the students of 12tha grade in SMK Bina Patria 1 Sukoharjo to improve students’ reading skill in finding main idea of each paragraph.
3. For the Researcher
This study is expected to become a starting point to develop the teaching technique in the future in order to create a better teaching learning process. 

A. Review of Reading
1. Definition of Reading 
Reading comprehension is defined as the active process of ‘‘simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language’’ (Snow 2002, p. 11). 
According to Tinker in Maxwel J (1974:5-6), reading involves the recognition of printed or written symbols which serve as stimuli for recall of meanings built up through past 5 experience, and the construction of new meanings through manipulation of concepts already possessed by the reader. The resulting meanings are organised into thought processes according to the purposes adopted by the reader.
Sheeba (2017:1) says that reading is a complex “cognitive process” of decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning. Reading is a means of  language acquisition, communication and of sharing information and ideas. The purpose for reading also determines the appropriate approach to reading comprehension .
Based on definitions above, reading can be defined as the instantaneous recognition of various written symbol with existing knowledge and it also can be defined as comprehension of the information and the idea communicated. It means  that when a reader interacts with printed messages, he tries to get the visual (written) information result or to get meaning in comprehending the messages or the texts from the writer. It also can be said that reading not only the process of getting the written symbols correspond to one’s spoken language but it is also the process of making the meaning of words, sentences and connected text that can be called comprehension. 

2. Teaching reading 
Sheeba (2017: 3) describes the goals and techniques of teaching reading as follows: 
a. Reading Process- It can develop student’s awareness of the reading process andreading strategies by asking students to think and talk about how they read in their native language. 
1) Allow students to practice the full repertoire of reading strategies by using reading material.
2) Students practice reading strategies in classin their reading assignments . It encourage students to be conscious of what they are doing while they complete reading assignments.
b. Integrating Reading Strategies-  Instructors can help their students to become more  effective readers by teaching them how to use strategies before, during and after reading.
c. Before Reading – plan for the reading task. Set a purpose in advance what to read for. Discuss if more linguistic or background knowledge is needed. 
d. During and after Reading
1) Verify predictionsand check for inaccurate guesses
2) Decide what is and is not important to understand.
3) Reread to check comprehension 
4) Ask for help.
e. After Reading
1) Evaluate comprehension and strategy use.
2) Evaluate comprehension in a particular task or area .
3) Modify strategies if necessary
f. Using Authentic Material and Approach
For students to develop communicative competence in reading , classroom and homework reading activities must resemble real-lifereading tasks that involve meaningful communication.
The reading material must be authentic. It must be the kind of  material that students will need and want to be able to read when travelling, studying abroad, or using the language in other contexts outside the classroom.
Rather than simplifying a text by changing its language , make it more approachable by eliciting student’s existing knowledge in pre-reading discussion, reviewing new vocabulary before reading and asking students to perform tasks that are within their competence, such as skimming to get the main idea or scanning for specific information , before they begin intensive reading. The reading purpose must be authentic . Students must be reading for reasons that make sense and relevance to them. The reading approach must also be authentic. Students should read the text in such a way that matches the reading purpose, the type of text, and the way people normally read.
Then, Sheeba (2017: 4) also describes the strategies for developing reading skills as follows:
1. Previewing : reviewing titles, section headings, and photo captions to get a sense of the structure and content of a reading selection
2. Predicting: using knowledge of the subject matter to make predictions about content and vocabulary and check comprehension ; using knowledge of the text type and purpose to make predictions about discourse structure ; using knowledge about the author to make predictions about reading , vocabulary and content. 
3. Skimming and scanning: using a quick survey of text to get the main idea, identifying text structure , conform or question predictions
4. Guessing from context: using prior knowledge of the subject and the ideas in the text as clues to the meanings of unknown words , instead of stopping to look them up.
5. Paraphrasing : stopping at the end of a section to check comprehension by restating the information and ideas in the text.

3. Reading skill
Holmes in John Wiley (2018: 1-2) defines that Skilled reading is characterised by the ability to rapidly recognise words in print and general mastery of the word level components of reading.  
Hulya (2012: 1) conveys that reading is a lifelong skill to be used both at school and throughout life.   Then, he strengthens by saying that reading proficiency is the most fundamental skill for academic learning and success in school. Block and Israel in Hulya (2012: 710) say that according to a study done in the United States, the ability to read proficiently is significantly related to how much a person can achieve in his or her personal and professional life. Based on that explanation, it can be concluded that reading skill is very important to people, to be succeed in society or in academic field. 

Furthermore, Block and israel in Hulya (2012: 710) say that Research shows good readers are actively involved with the text, and they are aware of the processes they use to understand what they read. Teachers can help improve student comprehension through instruction of reading strategies. Predicting, making connections, visualizing, inferring, questioning, and summarizing are strategies shown by research to improve reading .  
a. Predicting
In order to be a good reader, learners should set a goal for their reading; therefore good readers have a purpose for reading. One strategy for improving comprehension is predicting, which helps the reader set a purpose for their reading. Research has shown that good readers use their experiences and knowledge to make predictions and formulate ideas as they read (Block & Israel, 2005). This strategy also allows for more student interaction, which increases student interest and improves their understanding of the text (Oczkus, 2003). It is important to compare the outcome in the actual text with the prediction process as it will lead the learner to improve his understanding. comprehension (Duke & Pearson, 2005). Some of the approaches for teaching predicting are teacher modeling, predicting throughout the text; with partners, with a graphic organizer, or using post-it notes throughout the text. Using the title, table of contents, pictures, and key words is one prediction strategy. Another key prediction strategy is to have students predict at specific points through the text, evaluate the prediction, and revise predictions if necessary (Teele, 2004).
b. Visualizing
Another strategy that the good readers employ when comprehending a text is visualization (Adler, 2001). Visualization requires the reader to construct an image of what is read. This image is stored in the Reading Panel, 2000). Teachers can motivate students to visualize settings, characters, and actions in a story and ask them to make drawings or write about the image that come to their minds after visualizing the text.
c. Making Connections
Making connections is another strategy that can be used in the reading process. By making connections, the learners can activate their prior knowledge and connect the ideas in the text to their own experiences. Reading becomes meaningful when the reader connects the ideas in the text to their experiences and beliefs, and the things happening in the outer world. -to-Text, Text-to- Self, Text-to- make connections. Students can make text-toself connections through drawing, making a chart, or reading. Teachers might ask students if they have ever experienced anything like the events in the text. Students can make text-to-text connections through drawing, making a chart, reading, and graphic organizers. These text-to-text connections could be based upon how characters in the story relate to each other, or how story elements relate between stories. Students can make text-to-world connections through drawing,
making a chart, reading, or graphic organizers. Text-to-world connections could be done by comparing characters in a story to characters today or comparing the content of the text to the world today (Teele, 2004).G by asking them to find connections
would help them comprehend the ideas better in the text.
d. Summarizing
The process of summarization requires the reader to determine what is important when reading and to condense the information in the readers own words (Adler, 2001). During the summarizing process, the students will be able to distinguish the main ideas from the supporting ideas.Distinguishing the relatedknowledge from the unrelated onesis another point in the summarizing process which will Summarizing is a strategy which helps the students to organize the ideas even in the long reading passages which are usually perceived as threat for the students.
e. Questioning
Readers can use the questioning before, during, and after reading. The questioning process requires readers to ask questions of themselves to construct meaning, enhance understanding, find answers, solve problems, find information, and discover new information (Harvey &Goudvis, 2000). In this strategy, the students return to the text throughout the reading process to find the answers to the questions asked by the teacher before, during and after the reading. By this strategy, students practice to distinguish between questions that are factual prior knowledge. By using the student generated questioning strategy; text segments are integrated
and thereby improve reading comprehension (NRP, 2000).
f. Inferring
Inferring refers to reading between the lines. Students need to use their own knowledge along with information from the text to draw their own conclusions (Serafini, 2004). Through inferring students will be able to draw conclusions, make predictions, identify underlying themes, use information to create meaning from text, and use pictures to create meaning (Harvey & Goudvis, 2000). Students can be given techniques to use illustrations, graphs, pictures, dates, related vocabulary and titles from the text to make inferences.

B. Mind Mapping 
According to Budd, J.W (2004:36) A mind map is based on organizing information via hierarchies and categories. But in a mind map, the hierarchies and associations flow out from a central image in a free-flowing, yet organized and coherent, manner. Major topics or categories associated with the central topic are captured by branches flowing from the central image. Each branch is labeled with a key word or image. Lesser items within each category stem from the relevant branches. 

Then, Jacobs-Lawson & Hershey in Chiou C (2008:376) strengthens that a concept map is a graph structure containing nodes that are interlinked by labelled, directed arcs. Concept maps can be used as a knowledge representation tool to reflect relationships that exist between concepts that reside within an individual’s long-term memory. When constructing a concept map, the focus is the relationships among concepts. The combination of two concepts connected by a linking line and labelled by a linking word creates a proposition, which is the smallest linguistic unit that carries meaning. 

According to Saori (2018: 31), there are five steps to make mind mapping: 
1. first, prepare the equipment to make mind mapping such as paper (A4/Folio/A3), pencil or pen, stabile, marker or color pen; 
2. second, determine the topic, make a central image in the center of the paper, the position of the paper is landscape, draw the topic and give color to it. It can be the combination of three or four colors; 
3. third, make a main branch which is the idea of the topic, make the word in the same length with the main branch, make a word per branch, write down the word with capital letters, and then give them some colors; 
4. fourth, make a thin branch which is a sub-topic, add the words or pictures, add the main idea and develop it with subtopics. All the subtopics are placed in every branch separately; and 
5. fifth, continue it with other ideas by making a new branch . 
Moreover, he also mentions that there are some benefits of using mind map in teaching reading. Mind mapping is easy way to understand the content of reading materials; mind mapping is a way to improve our concentration and our mind; mind mapping is very appropriate to recall the information which have been learned before; using mind mapping, we can summarize reading materials on one page; and mind mapping helps us to remember the information in reading materials. The others benefits of using mind mapping: it is very flexible to add new information; it can make us focus on the content of reading material; it can improve reading comprehension; and it is very fun because it can make us more creative.
Based on the explanation above, it can be concluded that mind map can be described as a graphic organizer or a diagram that assists students or people, in general, to visualize what they are reading and discover connections between distinct pieces of information. With a typical mind map, the subject is is usually found in the middle canvas, while the notes, ideas, and keywords are arranged around the center. It can also be described as a structured strategy that shows hieararchical relationship of various ideas. Having a structured display of information before students begin to write will help them a lot since they can easily convert it into a draft. It can be quite difficult to comprehend some texts. They contain many words that students might not be familiar with and most have a complex structure. Note taking in a mind map while reading such texts can make it easier to comprehend the complex structure and content. 

This chapter describes reseach methodology which includes: (1) context of the research, (2) research method, (3) techniques of collecting data, and (4) techniques of analyzing data.
A. Context of the research
This classroom action research will be carried out in SMK Bina Patria 1 Sukoharjo which is located at Jl. Wandyopranoto No. 39, Sukoharjo, Central Java. This school is one of the favorite private school in Sukoharjo. This school is located in the central administrative of Sukoharjo and easy to reach by the people. This school consists of three grades in which each grade consist of 14 classes. There are 32 classrooms, teacher office, headmaster office, administration room, multimedia room, library, laboratories, mosque, canteens, basketball yard, and also parking area. Each classroom is completed with some facilities which are set to support teaching and learning process, such as whiteboard, blackboard, tables and chairs which fit the number of the students, a teacher’s desk and chair, a clock, sound system and lighting. 
The research is conducted through teaching learning process in the classroom at 12th grade students in the academic year of 2019/2020, especially in 12TKJ2 class. This research is held by implementing the use of mind map to improve students’ reading skill in finding main idea.
Class 12TKJ2 itself is a mixed ability class consisting of 15 boys and 11 girls. In relation to English lesson, they are actually keen on English. Meanwhile, in line with the completeness of school facilities, the class is quite familiar to the use of information communication and technology (ICT). 

This research was conducted from September 2019 up to November 219. The research schedule is as seen in the following table:


Distributing Questionnaires

Pre-test Cycle I

Meeting 1 Cycle I

Meeting 2 Cycle I

Meeting 3 Cycle I

Post test Cycle I

The research method applied in this study was action research. An action research is an approach to collect and interpret data that involves a clear, repeated cycle of procedures starts from planning an action to address a problem the researcher’s own context that is aimed to improve practice rather than to produce knowledge.
The model of action research used in this research is conducted through four stages. Those are:
a. Planning: the researcher observed the teaching learning process, conducted interview to the teacher and the students, distributed questionnaires to students, conducted pre test, and prepared lesson plan videos to use in reading classes. 
b. Acting and Observing: the researcher implemented his plan in each cycle of action research. As long as the plan implemented, the researcher observed the situation of the reading class through students’ behavior in teaching and learning process. In the end of each cycle, the researcher conducted a post test of reading  to see the students’ progress in reading;
c. Reflecting: the researcher analyzed the obtained data to identify the strengths and the weaknesses in each cycle. The result of reflection was used as the basic for the next planning and as the determiner whether the action was successful or unsuccessful. 

C. Technique of collecting Data
In this study, the researcher uses observational and non observationall techniques for collecting action research data. Observational techniques is used to find out the situation of the teaching learning process when the technique is applied and the students’ responses and feeling toward learning using the technique. Observational techniques used in this research are research diaries and journals, notes or field notes and photographs. While non- observational techniques used in this research are in the form of reading tests, interviews, and open- ended questionnaires. Non- observational tools result in data that are essentially introspective, that is, they invite personal and individual accounts of events, attitudes, and beliefs.
There are two roles of observation, namely non- participant and participant observation. Non-participant observation means watching and recording without personal involvement in the research context. On the other hand, participant observation involves entering the research context and observing oneself as well as others in that context. The researcher became a member of the context and participates in its culture and activities. In this research, the researcher uses participant observation to get the data. The researcher enters the class as teacher.

D. Instruments
There are five instruments used in this research to collect the data: notes or field notes, researcher’s diaries or journals, open-ended questionnaires, photographs and reading tests.
1. Notes or field notes
Notes or field notes are descriptions and accounts of events in the research context which are written in a relatively factual and objective style. They generally include reports of non verbal information, physical setting, group structures and records of conversations and interactions between participants. In this research, notes or field notes are used to observe students’ reading skill improvement from their behavior side. Collaborative observer’s notes or field notes are used to take notes on important activities related with students’ reading skill.
2. Researcher’s diaries or journals
Diaries or journals are an alternative to field notes, or a supplement, if time permits. They provide continuing accounts of perceptions and thought processes, as well as critical events or issues which have surfaced in the classroom. Diaries and journals contain more subjective and personal reflections and interpretations than the relatively formulized recording of notes. In this research, diaries or journals are written by the researcher as the teacher to record his analysis, interpretation, and reflection. They are used to observe the students’ behavior and development, materials, lesson plans, and everything related with teaching activities.
3. Open-ended questionnaires
Open-ended questionnaires are several questions expected to be answered by the participants in order to collect the data. The participants are quite free to answer the question. In this research, they are used to know the students’ felling, perception and opinions to the English teaching activities happen in the class.

4. Photographs
Photographs are way greatly enhancing classroom analysis and providing visual stimuli which can be integrated into reporting and presenting the research to others. The use of photographs is also a language classroom task and activities where visual aids are an invaluable support in learning. In this research, photographs are used to record activities happen in the class as it can give real description about the teaching learning process.

5. Reading tests
Test is a set of questions or exercises or other instruments to measure knowledge, intelligence, ability or aptitude of groups or individuals the researcher conducts tests consisting of post test 1 and post test 2. Post test 1 is done after the first cycle ends and the post test 2 is held in the end of the second cycle. The tests are used to measure students’ reading skill from the achievement side.
E. Technique of analyzing Data
After collecting the data, the next step of the study is analyzing the data. The data are analyzed by qualitative and quantitative data analysis.
1. Qualitative
The data of pre research observation report, interview, questionnaires, research diaries, field notes and the photographs of teaching learning process are analyzed by constant comparative method (CCM)  including (1) comparing incidents applicable to each category, (2) integrating category and their properties, (3) delimiting the theory, and (4) reading the theory. In implementing these steps, the researcher firstly constantly took note of any incidents then encoded and commented the obtained data so that some categories appeared. After that, the researcher found out the relationship among each category and its characteristics in order to draw minor theories. Next, the researcher restricted the scope of the minor theories in order to generalize these theories to a broader scope theory. After generalizing the theory, the researcher was then able to construct his own theory.
2. Quantitative
In analyzing the test score of the written test, a statistical technique is used to find the students’ mean score. The data from the test are analyzed in order to prove whether or not teaching reading using video can improve students’ reading skill.
In this research, the students’ mean score of the post test 1 is compared to the students’ mean score of the post test 2 to know whether there is an improvement of the students’ reading skill or not.

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